Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright. Antony occupied himself with military campaigns in the East and a romantic affair with Cleopatra; Octavian built a network of allies in Rome, consolidated his power, and spread propaganda implying that Antony was becoming less than Roman because of his preoccupation with Egyptian affairs and traditions.
They planned to cut off the Roman forces from Caesar, who had been wintering on the other side of the Alps. Caesar was elected a praetor for 62 bce. Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by Augustus to re-establish a "pool" of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him.
Cleopatra also committed suicide after her upcoming role in Octavian's Triumph was "carefully explained to her," and Caesarion was "butchered without compunction.
During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Powerful generals at the head of politicized armies extorted from the state more and greater power for themselves and their supporters.
Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order.
His first target, Gnaeus Cornelius Dolabella, was defended by Quintus Hortensiusthe leading advocate of the day, and was acquitted by the extortion-court jury, composed exclusively of senators.
As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle.
He obtained the governorship of Farther Spain for 61—60 bce. But even if they were acting on principle, they were blind to the truth that the reign of the Roman nobility was broken beyond recall and that even Caesar might not have been able to overthrow the old regime if its destruction had not been long overdue.
Hart's "The list of the most influential figures in history. Augustus and the Empire I: He was handsome, intelligent, decisive, and a shrewd politician, but he was not perhaps as charismatic as Julius Caesar or Mark Antony.
At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached the "Treaty of Misenum" [or "Puteoli"] in the summer of 39 BC.
The Chinese state founded by Shih-huang-ti in the 3rd century bce still stands, and its future may be still greater than its past. Collected Papers [Oxford, ], Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. Reportedly, the suggestion of Octavian's stepping down as consul led to rioting amongst the Plebeians in Rome.
The republican customs dues continued; but the rates were low enough not to hamper trade, which, in the peaceful conditions created by Augustus, flourished in wholly unprecedented fashion. This issue had already been the object of a series of political manoeuvres and countermanoeuvres at Rome.
The Liberators, who were led by L. Between Republic and Empire: Military disaster, the loss of his grandsons and a troubled economy clouded his last years. As one ancient historian says, people were born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate.
In any case, he was already the son of a god and the "revered one" Augustus. One of the perquisites of the praetorship and the consulship was the government of a provincewhich gave ample opportunity for plunder.
He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. Had Augustus died earlier in 23 BC, for instancematters may have turned out very differently.
Near the end of the second century BC, however, the system started to break down. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers.
The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. Augustus was determined to be succeeded by someone of his own blood, but he had no sons, only a daughter, Julia, the child of his first wife.
The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. DIR Atlas AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.) [Additional entry on this emperor's life is available in DIR Archives].
Garrett G. Fagan Pennsylvania State University.
Introduction Augustus is arguably the single most important figure in Roman history. Julius Caesar’s will resulted in Octavian becoming Caesar Augustus, the ruler who transformed Rome into the greatest empire of the ancient world.
A biography of Octavian or Octavius, who became Augustus Caesar, first emperor of Rome; books and links about Augustus. Caesar Augustus. Octavian was the son of Julius Caesar’s niece. The first eighteen years of Octavian’s life were unremarkable, but a surprise in Julius Caesar’s will eventually resulted in him becoming Caesar Augutus, the ruler who transformed Rome into the greatest empire of the ancient world.
Julius Caesar was so popular with the Roman people that the Senate named him dictator for life. LINDSAY POWELL writes for Ancient Warfare magazine and his articles have also appeared in Military Heritage and Strategy and Tactics. He is author of the highly acclaimed Marcus Agrippa: Right-Hand Man of Caesar Augustus, Germanicus: The Magnificent Life and Mysterious Death of Rome's Most Popular General and Eager for Glory: The Untold Story of Drusus the Elder, Conqueror of Germania.
In the last year of his life, Caesar developed personal control of the coinage to a point at which it lay ready to hand for Augustus to use later as a fully imperial instrument.Download